Carefully remove the outer jacket of the cable. Be careful when stripping the jacket as to not nick or cut the internal wiring. One good way to do this is to cut lengthwise with snips or a knife along the side of the cable, away from yourself, about an inch toward the open end. This reduces the risk of nicking the wires' insulation. Locate the string inside with the wires, or if no string is found, use the wires themselves to unzip the sheath of the cable by holding the sheath in one hand and pulling sideways with the string or wire. Cut away the unzipped sheath and cut the twisted pairs about 1 1/4" (30 mm). You will notice 8 wires twisted in 4 pairs. Each pair will have one wire of a certain color and another wire that is white with a colored stripe matching its partner (this wire is called a tracer).
Inspect the newly revealed wires for any cuts or scrapes that expose the copper wire inside. If you have breached the protective sheath of any wire, you will need to cut the entire segment of wires off and start over at step one. Exposed copper wire will lead to cross-talk, poor performance or no connectivity at all. It is important that the jacket for all network cables remains intact.
Untwist the pairs so they will lay flat between your fingers. The white piece of thread can be cut off even with the jacket and disposed (see Warnings). For easier handling, cut the wires so that they are 3/4" (19 mm) long from the base of the jacket and even in length.
Arrange the wires based on the wiring specifications you are following. There are two methods set by the TIA, 568A and 568B. Which one you use will depend on what is being connected. A straight-through cable is used to connect two different-layer devices (e.g. a hub and a PC). Two like devices normally require a cross-over cable. The difference between the two is that a straight-through cable has both ends wired identically with 568B, while a cross-over cable has one end wired 568A and the other end wired 568B. For our demonstration in the following steps, we will use 568B, but the instructions can easily be adapted to 568A.
568B - Put the wires in the following order, from left to right:
- white orange
- white green
- white blue
- white brown
Press all the wires flat and parallel between your thumb and forefinger. Verify the colours have remained in the correct order. Cut the top of the wires even with one another so that they are 1/2" (12.5 mm) long from the base of the jacket, as the jacket needs to go into the 8P8C connector by about 1/8", meaning that you only have a 1/2" of room for the individual cables. Leaving more than 1/2" untwisted can jeopardize connectivity and quality. Ensure that the cut leaves the wires even and clean; failure to do so may cause the wire not to make contact inside the jack and could lead to wrongly guided cores inside the plug.
Keep the wires flat and in order as you push them into the RJ-45 plug with the flat surface of the plug on top. The white/orange wire should be on the left if you're looking down at the jack. You can tell if all the wires made it into the jack and maintain their positions by looking head-on at the plug. You should be able to see a wire located in each hole, as seen at the bottom right. You may have to use a little effort to push the pairs firmly into the plug. The cabling jacket should also enter the rear of the jack about 1/4" (6 mm) to help secure the cable once the plug is crimped. You may need to stretch the sleeve to the proper length. Verify that the sequence is still correct before crimping.
Place the wired plug into the crimping tool. Give the handle a firm squeeze. You should hear a ratcheting noise as you continue. Once you have completed the crimp, the handle will reset to the open position. To ensure all pins are set, some prefer to double-crimp by repeating this step.
Repeat all of the above steps with the other end of the cable. The way you wire the other end (568A or 568B) will depend on whether you're making a straight-through, rollover, or cross-over cable.
Test the cable to ensure that it will function correctly. Mis-wired and incomplete network cables can lead to problems on commissioning. In addition, with power-over-Ethernet (PoE), crossed wire pairs could lead to physical damage of computers or network equipment, making it even more crucial that the pairs are in the correct order. A simple cable tester can quickly verify that the pairs are correctly wired. Should you not have a network cable tester on hand, simply test connectivity pin to pin.
If an Ethernet cable tester is available, use it to verify the proper connectivity of the cable. Run a full data test and ensure that the Ethernet cable tests error free. If test fails then look closely at each end and see if you can find the problem. Often a wire ended up in the wrong place or one of the wires is making no contact or poor contact. Also double check the colour coding to verify it is correct. If you see a mistake or problem, cut the end off and start again.
When installing Ethernet cables remember that an end to end connection should not extend more than 90m. Try to minimize the Ethernet cable length, the longer the cable becomes, the more it may affect performance. This is usually noticeable as a gradual decrease in speed and increase in latency.
About Modular Connector Plugs and Jacks:
The 8P8C modular connectors for Ethernet are called RJ45. The plug is an 8-position modular connector that looks like a large phone plug. There are a couple variations available. The primary variation you need to pay attention to is whether the connector is intended for braided or solid wire. For braided/stranded wires, the connector has sharp pointed contacts that actually pierce the wire. For solid wires, the connector has fingers which cut through the insulation and make contact with the wire by grasping it from both sides. The connector is the weak point in an Ethernet cable, choosing the wrong one will often cause problems later. If you just walk into a computer store, it's nearly impossible to tell what type of plug it is. You may be able to determine what type it is by crimping one without a cable.
There are plugs which are now designed to work on either Stranded or Solid cable, please check with your supplier before use. As this can be very time consuming changing to the correct plug in the future.
RJ45 Colour Codes
Pins on plug face (socket is reversed)
Please Note:- The IPerVoice network in wired as T568B the only item requiring crossover cable is the 1039/1 and this cable is supplied.